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tv   1944 Documentary D- Day to Germany  CSPAN  July 4, 2014 4:10pm-4:56pm EDT

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have that type of investment. so it's my responsibility now, and to be the 17th president's responsibility when he or she is named to go out and ensure we expand those ref streams. >> interim president dr. frederick on the challenges facing the predominantly black university sunday night at 8:00 eastern and pacific on c-span's q&a. jack lieb, a cameraman for hearst corporation was assigned to cover the invasion of france in 1944. d-day to germany was com pine by mr. lieb from his own covered film. shots in england, france in germany while on the job. the archives restored the film with the 1976 audio recording, of a lecture. it was his last lecture before he passed away. the film and audio were donated to the national archives in 1984
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by warren lieb, jack's son. >> the one place that intrigued me was my first trip to london, and the house of plamt parliament and big ben. now, these pictures, you must remember, are more than a quarter of a century old. the thing that amused and entertains our boys stationed all over england was westminster abbey, and there were quite a few americans who came there to see the sights and see westminster abbey, and these are the scenes that i wanted to photograph on one sunday afternoon. another area that intrigued me was marble arch. the marble average on one sunday afternoon was full of people. you must remember that london was being bombed almost every night in this particular time, and i was photographing these
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speakers that were addressing the crowds. every speaker was speaking on a different subject, but the police stood around and watched. as long as there were no strong arguments, nobody was hurt, and the people in the audience were arguing back with the speakers. but these were typical shots of how we passed the time waiting for d-day. most of the children who lived in england, or a great many i should say, were sent out of the city, but a lot of them had to remain behind. in spite of a war, they managed to find entertainment. i was rather surprised to see children drinking out of community cups. i'd to make candid shots so they
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didn't notice me, but every once in a while they did. this youngster is taking a cold drink on a beautiful sunday asp. we discovered that the st. paul's cathedral had been hit several times, but not badly damaged. one of the other attract shuns was buckingham palace and the gates protected by british troops, knolls in the hats they wore in peacetime, but in full war uniform. this is the way they paraded up and down. they weren't performing for the camera, but they were actually doing their duty. you know barrage balloons in the background. london had barrage balloon all over the area. it was said that if it wasn't for the barrage balloon with all the equipment being brought into the country, that the islands would sink into the sea, but they said the barrage balloon were holding it up.
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you must remember, too, that food was pretty scarce in london at this time. it was being brought in whatever way they could and being unloaded. but it isn't often you get a bright day like this in the spring in london. this was an opportunity to show what the soldiers were doing while they were waiting for the invasion. this is fleet street, discovered this irish policeman guarding the street. we saw considerable damage in the area, but soon we were down on the south coast of england where we met some of the other correspondents who were scheduled to cross the channel with us. and you'll probably recognize some of the old-timers who covered the war in that particular time. i was given a shovel to defend myself. it proved to be a valuable instrument. here we is a larry lesure of cbs. larry was covering the war for
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cbs, and so was wharton becker on the left, jack thompson of "the chicago tribune" ernie pyle here, and this is a close-up of jack thompson. this is larry o'reilly of the associated press. this is wharton becker. and we're saying other farewells, because we were expected to meet against in paris. here is clark lee and bill stoneman who came from chicago from "the daily news." certainty other correspondents were being boarded on a military truck to be taken to the south coast. we went through small british towns, and life was going on as usual. people were in the marketplace buys food, and as though nothing was going on. but after 150-mile ride, that's
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how we felt riding in an army vehicle. we found plim most was pretty badly damaged. a lot of the buildings were completely destroyed. this was found all over the area. soon we were approaching the dock area, and we found these american jeeps ready to be boarded aboard landing craft. you notice the bars that are attached to their bumpers. they're designed to cut wires that the germans have a has been of crossing the road that would sometimes cut off the heads of the drivers. we weren't allowed to wander around the area ourselves. each crossroad point was under guard of both an american and british soldier. if they wanted to see what ed in your bedroll, you had to show it to them. this was the care that was taken that the secret of the invasion be kept as long as it could. these are the two men, wes carroll of the owy, and pete
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carroll, the west haynes, rather, who were with me, and we went aboard an lci number 5. pete carroll here came from boston. he was a photographer for the associated press. we tried to keep our mind off what was coming. we knew it would be a short time before we would be on board. we had our first taste of k-rations, which didn't taste bad if you were hungry. we also were able to see the beautiful countryside in that area. and these are the sort of shots i wanted to bring home to show my family and friends. pete carroll was using some of his film to make a few shots himself. soon we were down at the docks. there we found unit of the 101st airborne division carrying everything they could carry by hand boarding landing craft that
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was so heavily laden, they had to be pushed off the docks by trucks, as you sigh in this manner. they were being taken to larger craft and boarded for the invasion. several units carrying grenades, bazookas. they didn't have an opportunity to load this aboard jeeps that were not fully available at this particular moment. we were aboard a fleet of lcis, and here shown with the commander of the invasion group in the center and the captain on the right -- rather, the captain of our ship, lt. patton, was in command of the lci number 5. and we found out he participated in several invasions in the mediterranean area. we felt rather confident that he knew what he was doing, but we stayed aboard this ship for
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almost five days. this is the commander of the squadron. i remember lt. patton's name well, because we were with him for so long. wes haynes was trying to get ready for the trip into paris. i think he was premature. these are units of the 101st airborne division amusing themselves. i don't have to tell you who this man was imitating. he was a notre dame football player at one time. i was told later on he was killed in the. of course, every ship had a mass com. ours was no different, but the boys provided for their mascot's welfare. with the making of a life preserver, just like the ones they wore themselves. then one afternoon lt. patton
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briefed the crew, and told them we would be sailing that afternoon. they let out a cheer, because this is the job they were waiting for. they wanted to get it done and go home. here we see the lci number 4 with the commander moving out into the channel. this was a tremendous sight to see, ships from one end of the horizon to another, ships of all kinds. they tell me there was well over 1,000 ships. even though, we thought this was just another exercise, as we continued on. we felt that we would be turned around, go back and try again another day. when we continued on into the night, we knew it was the real thing. at one time we had a bit of a scare. they said there was a submarine in the area and one of the d.e. boats threw some bombs into the channel. and they exploded, but we never saw any attack at all. here are some scenes actually taken close to the beach, where
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the ships made a right-angled turn and headed for the area where we were to land. that is a d.e. boat in the distance. of course we were on the alert for any kind of attack. fortunately our air force did their job well. at no time did i know of a german attack except after we had landed, two planes attempted to scrape the beach. i happened to be in the area. these are some scenes that i took with my camera that was reduced to 16 millimeter. this particular scene of these men going ashore was taken by an automatic camera aboard a british landing craft. they were the first men to land. the reason it was taken by an automatic camera was because they wanted to have a report of what happened should the landing
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fail, at least they might have a report if they were able to recover the film of what hand and how to avoid it if they had to try another attack. here are some scenes landing on the utah beach. this is the way we went ashore. you notice the men didn't after being aboard a landing craft for five several days. they walked slowly and cautiously, fearful of bombs and mines that were sown in the area. that had their rifles wrapped in cellophane, but this is how we needed to go ashore. and i needn't tell you that a lot of the boys didn't make it. here's a -- two men being shot down right before your eyes. here is pete carroll and wes haynes carries our own equipment, and the ship is grounded on the beach.
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the section was being attacked by enemy fire. in the previous shot, you could see a bomb land not too far from where we were. the bulldozer were trying to clear roads to let our jeeps and tanks move forward. even though it was june, the area was quite cold, as it usually is in that part of normandy. the men dug their foxholes deeper, and wid the good fortune of finding a concrete wall, but even now we're taking some of our wounded back to the beach so they can be transferred back to england. when the tide went out, the ships could not come in close, or thought that went aground had to wait for high tide to be refloated if they weren't hit. we stayed on the beach the first night and lived in a foxhole. soon we showed some of the first
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prisoners taken in the area late the first day, who were captured close to the beach, and were sent back to england because there was no room to keep them there. this is our first command post, where general collins on the left is talking to some of his officers, and we were able to get some of the first hot food at this place. i didn't realize how hungry i was until i saw these pictures. bob landry was on the right, cover the war fortime and "life." i used up all the films i had and decided to go back to france and get more, and probably to get a bath. i hadn't had my clothes off during that entire time. and my landing at england took place at a place near bonmuth.
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it almost looks like the cliffs of dover, but it was a beautiful sight to see the coast of inkland and know that i could get some rest. i didn't realize at that time that the buzz bam would start coming over. here we see some of them flying over the english coastline. these buzz bombs were a terror weapon. they didn't know where they would land, but the british were quick to set up machine guns and anti-aircraft fire to knock them out of the sky. they even send planes up into the sky to knock them out of the air, and of course sometimes they did get through, and where they fell, they caused considerable damage. but you must have missed that pretty good shooting. there's one coming down, it landed in the london area. wherever they landed, it caused
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considerable damage. my second crossing of the channel was made on an lst, this time with units of the 3rd armored division, which was sorely needed, because they were bringing over more tanks and vehicles to carry us in the direction of shareburg, because we needed a port badly. it was manned by a british crew. that's the captain in the british uniform, but we were in the long convoy of many of them, everyone loaded to the gills with equipment that was sorely needed. here you get an idea of what the beach looked like. these ships are actually waiting for the tide to recede so they could send their shipment ashore without going through deep water. on d-day, they had to go through deep water. at this point they're waiting for the ramps to be rebuild after a severe storm so they
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could go ashore without damage. now, you can see the problems they had on d-day. when the landing craft hit the sandbars, the men started wadeling ashore and found deeper water ahead. those their that life preservers or too low around their waist turned turtle, and many were drowned, but these are units of the 3rd army heading in, crossing the deep spot just ahead of them, and headed toward shareburg itself. this was a remarkable sight, and the ships were lined up as far as the eyes could see. we needed sherburg badly, but we found that sherburg was pretty badly destroyed by the germans themselves. they destroyed the docks, which we thought we could use. it took them, if i recall, almost two months before we could bring a ship in.
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they set up mines, and destroyed the famous sherburg docks where the transatlantic liners used to land. not only they destroyed the docks, but also the inland bridges that crossed the rivers that entered the area, the canals. this is one of them destroyed by the germans. soon the french people came back into the city, and gave us a warm welcome. and soon we found the prisoners, and i think they took something like 16 or 18,000 men out of the sherburg area, and they're still holding their personal belongings, marching toward the beaches, because they had to be transported to england, and some eventually to the states to be
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held in prisoner of war camps. even at this time those that could or would talk to us said we would be pushed intoic into the channel in less than a week. of course, at every headquarters area, we found a pit further of hitler, and our boys are uses it as a pinboard. the americans had a way of amusing themselves. this is the first official ceremony held in nance when they presented the tricolored flag made out of parachute cloth, to the mayor. and our boys of the 7th corps were given clean uniforms for the occasion. soon the people that came back to sherburg after the fighting stopped, came to visit with us and talk to us. here we so ernie pyle in the center again, talking to a colonel of the signal corps.
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this is burt brandt, who we saw earlier shooting for a.p. saysle cannes, and john mcglinty, and here is -- oh, gosh, 25 years has done a lot to my memory. but the troops began to move in the opposite direction to attack the enemy on the st. lowe line. we were passing through the city of valogne, and of course it was completely destroyed. i was there several times since the war and it's been rebuild beautifully, but the germans tried to make a assistant here. wherever they did try to make a stand, we had to knock them out, and in so doing, destroyed the city. a little later o. i had an opportunity to see the construction that was built by slave labor, and all along the beach, especially in the normandy area, as well as other areas, they built these triangles.
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many of them had mines attacked to them so if a boat touched them, they would explode. i was told after taking this walk that i should be very careful not to step where the ground is soft. this is a church in a pretty town that germans evacuated, because the commander liked the city so much that he didn't want to see it destroyed. just actually withdrew rather than let it be destroyed. it was a little fishing village. i had the good fortune of coming back several times, because the hotel was still intact and serving very excellent french freedo food. we found these fortifications, and even they metal fences, just to keep us from landing in the area. these heavy fortifications that
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were many feet in some areas, the germans saw to it that they were destroyed, blowing them up that we couldn't use them again them if they tried to take them back. they even destroyed their own weapons, but we noticed that the walls and fortifications were very thick, and very strong. the area was taken over by the navy, and there was an observation post right on the end -- this is near a town called granville. there is the lighthouse at the point. that's the observation point that the germans use. soon we brought in some of our
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big armament, and they were set up in the field and firing at german positions. even though the guns were firing, the french people were bringing in the crops, as though nothing was happening. this surprised me. i couldn't help be wanting to make a picture of it. these heavy guns caused terrific concussion. it was difficult to hold a handheld camera that long. one of the first things the americans did was build an air strep in the st. mary glise area, not far from the coast. they used a strip that was supported by metal wire to keep the planes from sinking into the ground. they were using it also as a place to tame off from with 500-pound bombs under each wing, but the strip was so rough, frequently the bombs would break loose, even though they were
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armed, they had to be disarmed and taken off the runway. these are p-47s that they were using here, and there's one carrying a bomb under each wing to attack the enemy deep behind the lines. you notice these two planes taking off at once raising considerable dust, but managing to get off a very short runway. here you notice a plane, you notice the buckle under the wheels. this sometimes caused the mesh wire to break and come up and hit the plane's propeller, causing it to crash before it left the ground. here's an unfortunate accident, two of our planes. here we see some pictures made
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by automatic cameras that were installed in the fighter planes, because when a pilot reported that he had shot down an enemy plane, he wasn't given credit unless he pictured proved that the plane was shot down. these automatic cameras would operate in conjunction with his machine guns. if you look closely, you'll see the pilot jump out of the plane in the shot, but you notice too that a lot of these planes are still carrying the extra fuel tanks that they were carrying underneath the wing. whenever the bullets hit that tank, the plane would explode, as you will see here. but when you saw shots like this, you know that the pilot never got back. one of the highlights of our trip across france was mount z.
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ste michelle, and here we met some of the other correspondents. this is bob capper of "time." i know there's a member in the audience who knew bob. and bob capper was eventually killed. he was covering the war in indochina when the french were fighting. but we found the hotel run by madam pulaud, and she served delicious omelettes for which she was famous. that's her famous hotel in the background. a lot of the correspondents gathered here to fight the war from this point, because we were close to the front line, if you could call it such, than we were at our main bases. there we see the river that separates normandy from brittany. this is a beautiful little island, and the building at the top is a monastery that was still intact, was not destroyed at all. here are some of the our gis
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looking over the sights of the monastery, being shown around by a woman guide. soon we met some of the other correspondents that we knew, here we see charles coalingwood, the gentleman on the right with helen kirkpatrick of "the chicago daily news" and joe liebling, the bald-headed chap, and wharton becker on the extreme left. liebling wrote many stories for "new yorker" and died not many years. this is charles collingwood and helen kirkpatrick of the chicago daily news. this is ernest hemingway. hemingway was cover for a magazine, and we met him at mount st. michelle. here he is talking with bill walton, who incidentally became a fast friend of president
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kennedy. these were just moments that we could take time out to rest. there's helen kirkpatrick and the man in the center is bill stringer he ways killed trying to get boo paris. one of the things that correspondents tried to do was to get into paris before anyone else. he was hit by an 88 shell. of course these are the shots i wanted to bring home to the family and friends. the little island was very quaint, a very old place, but fortified in several ways. we discovered that the beaches in the area especially when the tide was out, would be high and dry. they put those sticks in the sand to keep our planes from landing. we found a family of three brothers, and even the tal blond one was a boy, i found out
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later, because their grandmother was taking care of them. their parents, i was told, were killed at the battle of st. lowe. one afternoon rather late, i walked out, because as the sun was setting, i can't get some interesting shots of the island from the seaside, because they have an extremely high tide here, and would leave the island high and dry, but the tide would come in real fast and there was always danger of quicksand, so i didn't stand in one place for too long, but it left this unusual design in the sand. we didn't stay very long, but continued on deeper into france. in fact, i went into brittany for a while and discovered that the boys had found a lake there, which we'll see in a moment, but the countryside was beautiful.
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it was during the summer, and the crops were still in the field, but our boys after washing out of a helmet for many weeks, decided to use this beautiful lake for a bath. they were commit to do do so, because they were fighting the enemy at an area called st. mallo, and the germans held out for many months, almost to the end of the war. and, of course, it's the american sense of humor that helped them win the war, too. but here are some of the correspondents that we sometimes traveled together and we found a little river that proved to be useful as a bath. there are a lot of these small rivers around france, and at
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every moment that we could spare, this is a group of correspondents, ralph moss in the front, huey broderick, and joe priestly, and of course here we see edward g. robinson. he's one of the many actors and actresses that came to normandy to entertain our troops, and they held a show right in this normandy barn that was not too far, and i found out later the intermission had to be called when the shells came too close. all you had to do is point a camera at robinson and he acted. soon we found ourself in remboulie. it was the headquarters for all the correspondents that came there. we see ernie pyle, and george stevens, the hollywood director, myself and of course pete carroll. it was shortly after these pictures were taken that ernie
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pyle decided to return back to the states, and then went to the pacific where he was killed. george stevens was a very well-known hollywood director, i'm sure you recall, and he died only a few years ago, but practically every correspondent turned out to try to get into the city of paris, but we found that general eisenhower had given permission to the 2nd french armored division to take the city of paris, because the important thing was to destroy the enemy, and they didn't consider paris as a target. it would day them if they did try to take it themselves. they want to do circumvent the city because they wanted to give the honor to the french. general leclair was in command of the 2nd armored division. he refused to let the
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correspondents accompany his force to get into the city, simply because he didn't want any shots made until he had the city secure. we were glad to see pair us, because it was a city of great beauty, and we were amazed at the way the people turned out. these are some of the shots taken on the first day of liberation. i just didn't nearly get enough of these shots, because there was too much to do, soon general de gaulle came into the city, and here he is taking the salute and receiving some flowers from a french girl. it must be remembered that the girl was not well known at this time, and very few people could listen to the radio reports that told about his work in england prior to crossing the channel, but soon it seems as though everybody in paris turned out to see de gaulle.
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he was marching down the chaumps delysse. later on our own troops paraded down the avenue. it made us all proud. here's de gaulle, and suddenly firing opened up from forces that were left behind, and they thought from the effort some of the fascists that were still in the city trying to panic the people, but if you stuck your head out a window, you were bound to lose it. this went on continuously for several hours. in fact i was in the middle of this thing. these are shots of took of people lying flawed on the ground. they would get under our car. we couldn't move the car while they were trying to get the people to stop shooting by raising white flags. it went on continuously.
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although this was small arm fire, de gaulle just stood his ground. this is the way the streets of paris looked on the day of liberation. they did catch some of these people who were responsible for the shooting, at least they told us that, and unfortunately they beat them to death right on the spot. it was a rather ugly sight to see, but somehow it was the war of nerves. some of the buildings still contained germans at head quarter points, and they were sworn at by the french. these are some shots made late in the day of the american troops marching through the streets of the city on their way to the front lines. wherever we stopped, the french were there to trade champagne for cigarettes, and to talk to us and fit out what was going on.
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we were able to see the city. it wasn't badly destroyed. there were some small arms fire, a lion lost his tail, but generally speaking all the bridges were intact over the city, and the -- this is the opera house. and since it was my first trip to paris, i enjoyed seeing the beautiful city of paris. soon the people of paris were out parading against, with their newfound liberty. we discovered that the eiffel tower, which was reported destroyed and used for arms, was still intact. soon i managed to get permission to go up into the eiffel tower and see what it looked like from up above. but there was much to be done. even though paris looked beautiful, conditions were very poor. the railroads were practically destroyed. there was no way of bringing in
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food. in fact when we were coming down the road, we saw large trucks waiting to get into the city loaded with all kinds of foodstuffs to support the city, which was in desire need not only of food, but coal, because at this time it was getting pretty cold. it was late in the year, and there was no way of getting supplies in. these are scenes from the eiffel tower, showing the seine, and the buildings close to the eiffel tower. we see troops parading through the streets. but we had to move on, and soon i had to leave paris, and found myself in the countryside beyond paris, and went into belgium, where i managed to get into bringsles. these are some scenes of is the
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old racetrack, which we found was open shortly after the liberation. this surprised everyone, but they made them close the track after a few days of meeting, but one of the things that did surprise everyone is how well dressed the french women were, and they had a way of using whatever they had to make themselves look really attractive. i understand this annoyed some of the other allied countries very much, to think that they could get by like that. they even opened up the art galleries along the streets. we didn't know if they were permitted to do this prior to our getting there, but they certainly opened up for business very shortly after we arrived. we found a painter at work in
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the old quarter of paris, and shortly after leaving paris, i was in an area called the ardennes. the reason i took some of these shots of the countryside is because the weather was turning cold and the trees were turns that are fall colors. this is the town of hufulees. it was completely destroyed on the breakthrough that occurred and the attacked. fuls in bastion just a few days before the breakthrough and was fortunate enough to get out of there, not knowing about the attack, but i did think that this was a place that the enemy could hide troops, and they did. that's general collins again, talking to general moreries rose, in xharnd of the iii armored division. this is general rhodes on the left. general rose was killed in cologne. it was an unfortunate happening,
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because they thought they had the place protected, but there were enemy troops in the area, and he was shot. these are everyones of the 3rd armored division, fighting the enemy. and we and we managed to get some shots of them as they were being entertained bigger man children. we had a tremendous reception all the way across froons. but when we got to germany the reception was not there. all of the homes in the german area had white flags in front of them and that's an indication, of course, of surrender and the children here were actually on their way to school and children every where looked cute and they're holding their ears because our guns were firing not far away and they were trying to avoid the noise. we found the sigfried line,
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built by slave labor, i'm told, were not a fort occasion fortification against our tanks because the bulldozers pushed right over the top. they were stretched out from one end of germany to the other because somehow they felt that we had, perhaps, get to germany and they would try to keep us out but they didn't succeed, of course. the war was moving rather rapidly at some points in germany and soon, i found myself in the town of ochen. it was under fire when these pictures were taken and that's the reason the scenes are devoid of people. there were more ttar shells ove our heads and the enemy was holding the center of the city as we were making these shots and we were just were wondering
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how long it would take and they were just beyond the wreckage in the distance and soon we discovered that these reserves were a block or two behind the front line and they were waiting to be called in. i was told later on that the captain you saw in the picture a moment ago, that somebody in the audience knew him and said he was killed in the action that took place shortly after that. after that, i was invited to fly home and this is something i was glad to be able to do because here we see some of the cemeteries that were built on the normandy beaches above the beaches and these are scenes of berlin showing the tremendous damage that occurred in the city. the bombings were intense and very little of berlin was left standing. it shows that wars don't seem to very much except to destroy
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property and kill people. and we sometimes think that maybe one day we'll learn how to avoid wars and, perhaps, we made wars so deadly that we'll have to avoid them in the long run to stay alive. soon, i was able to photograph some of the events when general eisenhower came back to the states and was greeted in kansas city. these shots were made with a telephoto lens at quite a distance. then i was able to visit the collection of some of the weapons the germans used, just after the invasion. this is the b 2 rocket that followed the v-1's. the v-1s were a terror weapon and the v-2's were centerly the same and they were able to shoot them great distances. the v-1's and i heard many of them come overhead were like a motorcycle engine.
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and one of them stopped, it would cause the bomb to drop. the germans had jet planes in the air before the war ended. and here's one and it showed a record of many american planes and if you notice, 42 russians were shot down by this plane. before it was captured by our side and in this can exhibit we see one of the japanese come can zee bombs and they didn't like the fact that you had a one-way ticket because they intended to destroy the target they were after and the pilot with it. this plane, i was told, was built by ten my to bomb new york and it could fly the ocean and back and here we see some shots
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of what i call -- what the next war might look like and this is the explosion of the atomic bomb in new mexico. and i always like to feel when i show these pictures that, perhaps, it will remind people that we ought to remember what world war ii is like and that world war iii would be like. and i want to say what one scientist aptly put it. he said the atomic bomb is here to stay. the question is, are we? and that brings us to the end of our film and thank you very much.

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